Civil Rights Cases - Wikipedia Civil Rights Cases - Wikipedia

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But it is for congress, not the judiciary, to say which is best adapted to the end to be attained. But a moment's attention to its terms will show that the section is entirely corrective in its character. The court adjudges that congress is without power, under either the thirteenth or fourteenth amendment, to establish such regulations, and that the first and second sections of the statute are, in all their parts, unconstitutional and void.

But I submit, with all respect to my brethren, that its constitutionality is conclusively shown by other portions of their opinion. The innkeeper is not to select his guests. No corporation has property in them, though it may have franchises annexed to and exercisable within them.

Questioning Constitutionality Immediately, the Court identified the primary question in the Civil Rights Cases as whether or not the act was a constitutional law. When, therefore, one devotes his property to a use in which the public has an interest, he in effect grants to the public an interest in that use, and must submit to be controlled by the public for the common good to the extent of the interest he has thus created.

And upon this ground, too, the state may regulate the entire management of railroads in all matters affecting the convenience and safety of the public; as, for example, by regulating speed, compelling stops of prescribed length at stations, and prohibiting discriminations and favoritism.

This conclusion disposes of the cases now under consideration.

Civil Rights Cases

Innkeepers and public carriers, by the laws of all the States, so far as we are aware, are bound, to the extent of their facilities, to furnish proper accommodation to all unobjectionable persons who in good faith apply for them. Background[ edit ] Black American plaintiffs, in five cases from lower courts, [3] sued theaters, hotels and transit companies that refused to admit them, or had excluded them from "white only" facilities.

Whether this legislation was fully authorized by the Thirteenth Amendment alone, without the support which it afterward received from the Fourteenth Amendment, after the adoption of which it was reenacted with some additions, it is not necessary to inquire. Positive rights and privileges are undoubtedly secured by the fourteenth amendment; but they are secured by way of prohibition against state laws and state proceedings affecting those rights and privileges, and by power given to congress to legislate for the purpose of carrying such prohibition into effect; and such legislation must necessarily be predicated upon such supposed state laws or state proceedings, and be directed to the correction of their operation and effect.

Ivens7 Car. And such must be their constitutional right, in their own state, unless the recent amendments be 'splendid baubles,' thrown out to delude those who deserved fair and generous treatment at the hands of the nation. A license from the public to establish a place of public amusement, imports, in law, equality of right, at such places, among all the members of that public.

If the principles of interpretation which we have laid down are correct, as we deem them to be and they are in accord with the principles laid down in the cases before referred to, as well as in the recent case of United States v.

One such law, based on both the Thirteenth and Fourteenth amendments, was the Civil Rights Act of Following the decision, several northern and western states enacted their own bans on discriminatory practices in public places but other states, especially Southern states, did the opposite.