OSA | 40 GHz mode locked semiconductor lasers: Theory, simulation and experiments OSA | 40 GHz mode locked semiconductor lasers: Theory, simulation and experiments

Mode locking simulation dating, active and passive mode locking

The pump source then continuously supplies energy to the gain mediumwhile the circulating pulse extracts energy in regular time intervals.

Mode Locking

Generation of a pulse train in a passively mode-locked laser. If this condition can not be fulfilled, so that gain saturation by a single pulse becomes strong which can make the pulse formation unstablesynchronous pumping can be a solution.

The gain medium compensates for losses, and the saturable absorber mirror SA enforces pulse generation. Strictly, it is not even advisable to use the term modes for the lines in the spectrum of a mode-locked laser, even though these lines are related to the resonator modes.

In most but not all cases, the pulse duration achieved is governed by a balance of pulse shortening through the modulator and pulse broadening via other effects, such as the limited gain bandwidth.

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High and Low Pulse Repetition Rates High repetition rate pulse trains are sometimes obtained with harmonic mode lockingwhere multiple pulses are circulating in the laser resonator with a constant temporal spacing.

Also, the concept of resonator modes becomes questionable under the influence of strong optical nonlinearities. However, that phase relationship can be enforced by a strong enough mode-locking mechanism provided that the dephasing tendencies are not too strong.

Temporal evolution of the intracavity field in a laser, once with a fixed phase relationship between the modes mode-locked stateonce with random phases.

These frequency deviations may not be arbitrarily high, and therefore the generation of broadband spectra is usually possible only if the resonator dispersion is sufficiently small, so that the resonator mode frequencies are approximately equidistant.

Later inthis phenomenon has, indeed, been measured at the HHI with autocorrelation techniques. Instabilities and Noise of Mode-locked Lasers The various mechanisms for mode locking can exhibit various kinds of instabilities.

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More details can be found in the articles on active mode locking and passive mode locking. Above the GHz area, we discovered a region where a two-pulse instead of one scenario appears.

An important aspect is that there must be a fixed phase relationship between these modes. Each time the circulating pulse hits the output coupler mirror OCa pulse is emitted in the output.