Tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer elucidating mechanisms of hormone, article versions
Establishment of an in vitro estrogen-dependent mouse mammary tumor model: In mammary epithelial cells, the expression of cyclin D1 is regulated through the ER signaling Role for autophagy in anti-estrogen resistance Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy also referred to as macroautophagy is critical to the development of anti-estrogen resistance This is partly due to the complexity of the signaling pathways that influence the estrogen-mediated regulation in breast cancer.
GPR30 as an initiator of tamoxifen resistance in hormone-dependent breast cancer
Thus, canonical BH3-only proteins such as BAD have been shown to displace Beclin 1 from BCL-2leading to the proposal that an analogous signaling cascade to that associated with the release of BCL-2 antagonists by BH3-only proteins in the apoptosis pathway also extends to autophagy Cross-talk among estrogen receptor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor signaling in breast cancer.
Estrogen receptors and human disease. Abstract Anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen are widely used in the clinic to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Estrogen receptors and endocrine diseases: It became increasingly recognized that CSCs are playing an important role in driving metastasis and tamoxifen resistance.
Studies have demonstrated that MACROD2 deacetylates O-acetyl-ADP ribose, a signaling molecule generated by the deacetylation of acetylated lysine residues in histones and other proteins Tissue-specific transcription activating factors that may alter how the signal induced by TAM binding to the receptor is interpreted by the cell also require further investigation.
Estrogen receptors outside the nucleus in breast cancer. S, a phosphorylation site discovered by mass spectrometry, requires concurrent phosphorylation of S Conversely, mTOR activity is rapidly shut down under conditions of stress, which allows for the rapid upregulation of autophagy
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